- One of YBiT’s main activities is to introduce frameworks that were created by the world’s leading nudge units to staff of local governments in Japan. Serving as guides for policy making and execution, these frameworks can be broadly grouped into two types. 
- The first is a checklist type that has systematically organized the characteristics of nudges. When designing a policy, if you check the items off one-by-one, you will be able to see if your project meets the criteria of nudges. The UK’s MINDSPACE and EAST are some examples of this checklist type.
|Messenger||we are heavily influenced by who communicates information|
|Incentives||our responses to incentives are shaped by predictable mental shortcuts such as strongly avoiding losses|
|Norms||we are strongly influenced by what others do|
|Defaults||we ‘go with the flow’ of pre-set options|
|Salience||our attention is drawn to what is novel and seems relevant to us|
|Priming||our acts are often influenced by sub-conscious cues|
|Affect||our emotional associations can powerfully shape our actions|
|Commitments||we seek to be consistent with our public promises, and reciprocate acts|
|Ego||we act in ways that make us feel better about ourselves|
MINDSPACE Framework, Institute for Government
- The second is a process-flow type which guides you through the traditional steps of identifying a policy issue and creating a strategic policy, before executing and evaluating the policy. Examples of such tools include OECD’s BASIC and Toronto University’s “The Practitioner’s Guide to Nudging.” 
- Each framework has its own unique characteristics. The UK BIT’s EAST is a checklist framework with four nudge pillars: Easy, Attractive, Social, and Timely. Its simplicity makes it the easiest to use, with hundreds of thousands of practitioners all over the orld using this approach in policy making trainings offered by the UK BIT. YBiT also utilizes EAST in its monthly meetings and training sessions.
- OECD’s BASIC, on the other hand, is the most comprehensive framework of behavioral insights. Its objective is to apply, where appropriate, insights from behavioral science to systematic analyses of policy issues. Steps include defining a problem and its scope, identifying suitable behavioral interventions, and evaluating their effectiveness.
- Although local nudge units have been newly established in recent years, Japan lags behind internationally. The silver lining is that there are many lessons learnt and relevant resources available for Japanese newcomers. OECD(2017) also mentions that latecomers should try to replicate the efforts and successes of earlier nudge units.
- When learning from world’s leading nudge units, their frameworks can serve as the best tools to guide our actions. Each framework has, however, both strengths and weaknesses to be acknowledged, and thus should be adapted to the user’s intentions and contexts.
- Over the next columns, I will introduce the frameworks that YBiT use, mainly EAST, the Practitioner’s Guide to Nudging, and BASIC.
Hirokazu TSUDA（YBiT core member）
 Reference to Japan’s Nudge Unit categorization（http://www.env.go.jp/earth/ondanka/nudge/renrakukai07_1/mat02.pdf）
 Dolan, P et al. 2015. “MINDSPACE: Influencing behaviour through public policy” (https://www.bi.team/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/MINDSPACE.pdf)
 Owain et al. 2015. “EAST: Four simple ways to apply behavioural insights” (https://www.bi.team/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/BIT-Publication-EAST_FA_WEB.pdf)
 OECD，2019. “Tools and Ethics for Applied Behavioural Insights: The BASIC Toolkit”．(https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/governance/tools-and-ethics-for-applied-behavioural-insights-the-basic-toolkit_9ea76a8f-en#)
 Kim Ly et al. 2013 “A Practitioner’s Guide to Nudging” (http://www-2.rotman.utoronto.ca/facbios/file/GuidetoNudging-Rotman-Mar2013.ashx.pdf)
 OECD. 2017. “Behavioural Insights and Public Policy Lessons from Around the World”（https://people.kth.se/~gryne/papers/OECD_2017.pdf）
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